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双11天猫2分钟内成交10亿 川内家具等销量居前

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 家具板材“不结实”或因企业偷工减料 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

土地市场迎来“小阳春”:300城土地楼面均价回升

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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1961年,爱德华·索普和克劳德·香农共同研制出第一副可佩戴的电脑眼镜。1968年,伊凡·苏泽兰制造出了"达摩克里斯的利剑"。这是第一台头戴式电脑,也是今天我们所有头戴式电脑的鼻祖。1980年,史蒂夫·曼恩,被称为"头戴式电脑之父",制造出了"可穿戴式电脑",这种电子增强型的眼镜,可以与其他电脑进行无线沟通以及共享视频。接下来的几年,他在眼镜领域继续研究,而在1999年时,他制造出了一副很像谷歌眼镜的眼镜,或者说谷歌眼镜的原型。他叫它做"电子眼镜"。
Télécom Business School in France and Prague’s University of Economics have the most gender-balanced faculty, with exactly 50 per cent women, while Switzerland’s University of Zurich is the least balanced, with only 9 per cent. Switzerland’s IMD has the most international faculty, with 94 per cent of them from overseas, while faculty at Politecnico di Milano School of Management are all Italian.
1.摄影:增长了22.3%
社交网络内容将出现在谷歌搜索结果页面
Mr Crabb has taken no exposure to Hong Kong’s property market since setting up in Asia 18 months ago, because he says prices are too high and affordability too low.
网络红人前10名的微博粉丝数加起来超过了4000万。其中最著名的Papi酱签署的视频广告价值竟然达到了令人震惊的2200万元。

James Bond Themes 9. "The Man with the Golden Gun" by Lulu
White people’s officially privileged status waned over the latter half of the 20th century with the demise of discriminatory practices in, say, university admissions. But rising wages, an expanding social safety net and new educational opportunities helped offset that. Most white adults were wealthier and more successful than their parents, and confident that their children would do better still.
在你醒着的时候,肝可以扩大将近一半。新的研究指出,在白天的时候,肝有能力扩大近50%,然后在夜间则会缩回到原始尺寸。肝是我们所知道到的唯一一个可以这样变化的器官。
Losers: Kings
银行根本无力赶上这样的薪酬水平。例如,受交易结构性变化和旨在约束冒险行为的新规打击,自2009年以来高盛(Goldman Sachs)的净收入减少了约三分之一。该行试图让薪酬比保持稳定,这意味着发放给典型员工的总薪酬减少。

Footnotes

  • ?新华社:从“年中考”看中央企业高质量发展
  • 2016的很多电影都会有很好的票房号召力,但人们迫不及待想要观看的其实只有那么几部。

['pl?nit]
Barack Obama went on the offensive over foreign policy in the third and final presidential debate, repeatedly accusing Mitt Romney of flip-flopping on major international issues but failing to deliver a killer blow to his opponent's resurgent campaign.
他有能力向球迷们展示接下来的计划吗?——不管是什么计划。在又一个无论场内场外都丑陋的赛季后,尼克斯球迷当然有理由知道上述两个问题的答案。
3、Negativity
Aaron Hernandez
美联储退出购债计划的道路是否会经历坎坷?

新华时评:首季起跑稳 奋力新作为

References

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