Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 收紧贷款别让刚需躺枪.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
The cemetery was first found in July 2007and was excavated by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,with assistance from local authorities. The research team, led by Zhiyong Yu,director of the Xinjiang Archaeological Institute, published the findings in Chinese in the journal Wenwu. The article was recently translated into Englishand published in the journal Chinese Cultural Relics.
If the timing of your job search allows, Foss recommends beefing up your LinkedIn profile gradually (and thus inconspicuously). Or better yet, work on it when you're not job searching。
People who are skeptical about this argument just need look at smartphones and personal computers, which have served as the technological driving force of the past century.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
The show started with a circus theme, complete with acrobats, a sword-swallower and a man on stilts. Justin Bieber, Rihanna and Bruno Mars performed.
With an 8.5-percent increase in profits, industrial enterprises reversed the previous year's negative growth of 2.3 percent.
The Amsterdam crisis began when a Dutch group known as the Seppenwolde syndicate made a big, contrarian bet on the shares of East India Company. Those shares had plunged in 1771 mainly because of losses in Bengal, but the company kept paying high dividends and covered up its shortfalls by borrowing money. Convinced that East India shares would quickly rebound, the Seppenwolde group aggressively bought them on margin. But instead of rebounding, the shares fell even further after the company slashed its dividend.
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It has exceeded the average level of 2.08% in the EU, while it still lags behind the 2.4% average ratio for member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the bureau said.
在假日旅行最佳航空公司的排行榜上，夏威夷航空公司（Hawaiian Airlines）遥遥领先，紧随其后的是另一家主要经营太平洋海岸业务的阿拉斯加航空公司（Hawaiian Airlines）。相反，根据FlightAware的数据显示，假日旅行期间最差的航空公司是总部位于纽约的捷蓝航空公司（JetBlue Airways），经营区域航线的快捷航空（ExpressJet）排名倒数第二。
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Death may be behind the ritual of the critic’s top 10 lists, including that of physical media: Lists are easy to read on cellphones even if the deluge of entertainment media increasingly makes comprehensive viewing near-impossible. More than 900 movies will have opened in New York by the end of this year, many slipping in and out of theaters quickly and racing toward on-demand oblivion. Even so, I watched several hundred features over the year and liked quite a few; the major studios and the independent sector released the expected junk but, as usual, movies of merit. What follows are my favorite moving pictures of 2015 and another 10 miscellaneous notes on the year.
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The study is available online.